Today, I installed PHP, MySQL and Apache on my small brandnew Mac, but for whatever reason Apache does not recognize the PHP extension... I adopted this tutorial (much like before) and for whatever reason the phpinfo.php file is showing anything than the:

<?php 
     phpinfo();
?>

What setting or configuration did I miss?

Why don't you use MAMP?

It installs these for you personally, it's free, and you just need to open an application to produce both MySQL and Apache severs.

Look at your httpd.conf. You will probably find the PHP module load command is said out.