In legacy code I have examined, I have found an information model that induce boolean fields of relevant characteristics where just one is anticipated to be real. For instance:

create table MyTable (
   id int primary key not null,
   // more fields...
   has_x bool not null,
   has_y bool not null
);

This really is silly since it enables potentially sporadic data if both are going to true. I am attempting to show technical, but non-developer, customers, although not sure how you can explain WHY it's proper to alter to some 1-to-many relationship to some definition, like below, once the original design "works".

create table Attributes ( -- contains "x" and "y" records.
   id int primary key not null,
   name varchar(100) not null
);

create table MyTable (
   id int primary key not null,
   // more fields
   attribute_id int not null foreign key references Attributes(id)
);

It is possible to term of these data modeling designs?

You are looking at database normalization.

However, you are able to ensure consistency by applying a [cde] constraint which will only allow among the boolean fields to become set to true at anyone time.