I've just moved a Wordpress install from the remote host to operate on my small local development machine. Around the remote server it's completely functional.

However, on my small development box I'm able to only load the home page. Other Web addresses just load a typical phpinfo() page without any errors.

Does anybody understand what may be leading to this?

It may sound as if you are utilizing MAMP or WAMP in your dev box, that will load a default vhost showing phpinfo for just about any page that doesn't exist.

Inside wordpress, the configurations, within the DB, it may sound as if you have Url's "hardcoded" like "http://www.mysite.com" which aren't working in your area since your "dev" Url is one thing like "http://localhost"

When you use an improvement server, particularly with wordpress, you need to setup you dev server as near for your production server. Which means you should edit your host file to really make it so "http://www.mysite.com" really would go to your development box or localhost. This way you're viewing everything as it will likely be if this would go to production.