After I consider the SQL Server my SharePoint website is using I see several databases inside that seem to be utilized by my website. Can there be somewhere to locate documentation on which each database stores?

Here's the MSDN article:

It arrives with this Microsoft warning:

Warning: Modifying the database schema or database structures isn't supported. Changes that you simply make to the database contents might be overwritten whenever you install updates or service packs for Home windows SharePoint Services, or whenever you upgrade a set up to another product version.

SharePoint has a wealthy group of APIs that might be easier to use than hooking up straight to the database. The Microsoft Develper center is a great beginning point for dealing with MOSS APIs

For information on what each database has try here