I wish to develop a database of physical locations and want to have the ability to identify locations where fall inside areas. For instance, The Empire Condition Building will have one geo-coordinate, but my database would have the ability to let me know it falls inside Manhattan, which falls inside New You are able to City, which is incorporated in the condition of recent You are able to and so on.
I have been searching at OpenStreetMap which appears to possess a pretty decent database but as well as I will tell, I will have to create some polygon structures representing each region after which identify if your coordinate falls in the given region's polygon. It is possible to better method of doing this, or it is possible to databases where all this was already calculated?
Additionally you might want to consider the Geonames database. Even though it is not classified using hierarchical method, you can most likely derive the data from it.
If you want to dive into creating a physical database where one can evaluate the information, have a look at loading your computer data in to the free/open-source PostgreSQL/PostGIS stack. With that you could really write SQL that solutions questions like "show me every point [inside a city/county/condition boundary]" or "[within X distance from Y location]".
I am confident the google maps API has regions understood to be polygons. By regions I means, Condition, City, Zipcode, or nearly anything that may be understood to be a "region"
You would need to hit-test (Google Maps may have a function with this already) a place to ascertain if it's in the polygon.
You might make use of the research address by GeoLocation functions to locate which region(s) a place resides in, and merely use that.