I essentially desire a Wordpress "Page" that functions similar to the webpage and loops through recent posts and shows them. How do you do that?

If put forth Configurations->Reading as well as "Top Of The Page Shows" choose static page, after which choose a webpage in the dropdown, then edit the origin code with this file to incorporate a typical Wordpress loop like -

<?php if(have_posts()) : while(have_posts()) : the_post(); ?>
    <h2><?php the_title() ?><h2>
<?php endwhile; endif; ?>

Make use of the wordpress loop, however, you can control which posts appear informed using query_posts()