I have looked with the related questions, but no luck.

I am attempting to rewrite something similar to this: http://www.example.com/v2/index.php/en/company/careers/training-and-implementation-specialist/

for this: http://www.example.com/en/company/careers/training-and-implementation-specialist/

To create things a bit more confusing, The "index.php" within the URL above is really a file, not really a directory. I am attempting to make a guide where www.example.com/v2/index.php/(anything) becomes www.example.com/(anything)

I seem like this ought to be easy, and that i attempted this: RewriteRule ^v2/index.php/(.*) /$1 [L]

but no luck -- it will get 404'd for anything I attempt that's in /v2/index.php.

Any suggestions?

If I am being aware of what for you to do, In my opinion it is backwards. Do this:

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ v2/index.php/$1 [L]

The issue is with . between index and php in RewriteRule ^v2/index.php/(.*) /$1 [L]

To rewrite try-RewriteRule ^v2/index\.php/(.*)$ /$1 [L]

if you wish to redirect, change [L] to [R,L]