I am sorry if this sounds like a fundamental question, however I've been looking for this and should not find anything useful, most likely since i have don't fully realize the correct terms.. I'm wondering if there's a method to interpret the url that's known as around the server, for example:

http://mydomainname.com/site1/module1

after which using PHP (ideally), as well as other technology if required, alter the display from the hyperlink to the utilization as another thing, for example:

http://domainname.com/app1

I recognize I would need to place in specific items to change web addresses back and forth from, just am unsure if this sounds like possible.. thank you for any advice.

You're searching for info on URL rewriting. As you are using Apache, the mod_rewrite module is most likely what you're most thinking about. Regrettably, I am not too familiar around the subject and sometimes need to consult guide myself. But a minimum of you've some reading through material until someone with increased understanding in this region will help you.

An .htaccess file such as this works:

Options +FollowSymLinks
RewriteBase /
RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule \.(css|js|png|gif|jpg|xml|txt|zip|rar|swf|flv|as|ico|csv|xls|php|pdf|html)$ - [S=1]
RewriteRule .* index.php [L,NC]

Your index.php file will have to handle the routing from the page after that. It is a good starting point for individuals with custom cms.