For Postgres can there be any kind of command line utilities that permit a database to become "left to some file" which allow that same database dump to become imported?

I understand you can do this through PGAdmin, but I have to have the ability to do that around the cmd line.

Correct, the best way to do this is actually the pg_dump, pg_dumpall and pg_restore instructions. Actually, I believe pg_admin really calls individuals instructions itself. It does not really have backup/restore built-in but is simply a wrapper.

Individual tables could be released while using COPY command
http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.1/static/sql-copy.html