what's the best answer when it comes to performance and "readability/good coding style" to represent a (Java) Enumeration (fixed group of constants) around the DB layer regarding an integer (or a variety datatype generally) versus a string representation.

Caveat: You will find some database systems that support "Enums" directly but this could require to keept the Database Enum-Definition synchronized using the Business-Layer-implementation. In addition this type of datatype is probably not on all Database systems as well as might differ within the syntax => I'm searching for a simple solution that's simple to mange and on all database systems. (So my question only adresses the amount versus String representation.)

The Amount representation of the constants appears in my experience extremely powerful to keep (for instance consumes only two bytes as integer) and is probably extremely fast when it comes to indexing, but difficult to read ("" versus. "1" etc)..

The String representation is much more readable (storing "enabled" and "disabled" in comparison to some "" and "1" ), but consumes much mor space for storage and is probably also reduced regarding indexing.

My questions is, did I miss some main reasons? An amount you suggest for an enum representation around the Database layer.

Thanks greatly!