I've the technique below in functions.php. I am looking to get in the title from the publish the comment has been left on, as well as the title, email, and content from the comment itself.

add_action('comment_post', 'comment_posted');

function comment_posted($comment_id) {
    //what can I do here to get the original title of the post
    //what can I do here to get the details of the comment (name, email, content)?
}

I have attempted versions from the_title() and obtainthe_title(), but no luck.

Give mtss is a try:

add_action('comment_post', 'comment_posted');

function comment_posted($comment_id)
{
    $comment = get_comment($comment_id);
    $post = get_post($comment->comment_post_ID);
    $title = $post->post_title;
}

By utilizing get_comment, you'll get access to all this details about the comment: http://codex.wordpress.org/Function_Reference/get_comment#Return. Furthermore, if you use get_publish, you'll get access to all this information: http://codex.wordpress.org/Function_Reference/get_post#Return.

Alternatively, you can simply employ:

$comment = get_comment($comment_id);
$title = get_the_title($comment->comment_post_ID);

however i would rather make use of the get_publish function because whenever I want one bit of information in the publish, I appear to eventually need another piece.

Hope this can help!